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Basics of Credit Inquiry

Credit inquiries, categorized as hard or soft, involve the examination of credit reports. While hard inquiries impact credit scores, soft inquiries are harmless, offering insights for personal credit monitoring without affecting credit health.

What is a Credit Inquiry?


A credit inquiry, also known as a credit check or credit pull, refers to the process where a third party, such as a lender, creditor, employer, or individual, requests access to view an individual's credit report or credit score from one or more of the major credit bureaus. There are two primary types of credit inquiries: hard inquiries and soft inquiries.


Differences between Hard and Soft Credit Inquiries


Understanding the differences between hard and soft credit inquiries is crucial for managing your credit health and financial decisions. While both types involve accessing your credit report, they differ in their impact on credit scores and the circumstances under which they occur.


Hard Inquiries:


  • Definition: Hard inquiries, also known as hard pulls, occur when a lender or creditor checks your credit report as part of a credit application process. These inquiries typically happen when you apply for a new credit card, a loan (such as a mortgage or auto loan), or any other form of credit.
  • Impact on Credit Score: Hard inquiries can have a slight negative impact on your credit score. Although the impact is usually minor and short-lived, each hard inquiry might lower your score by a few points. Hard inquiries typically remain on a credit report for up to two years. However, while they are visible to lenders who review the credit report, their impact on credit scores diminishes over time. In terms of affecting credit scores, hard inquiries usually have a significant impact only in the first few months after they occur. As time passes, their impact lessens, and after about a year, they might have little to no effect on credit scores. After the two-year period, hard inquiries are automatically removed from the credit report and cease to impact credit scores.
  • Pros: Hard inquiries are necessary when applying for credit, allowing lenders to assess your creditworthiness accurately. They are essential for obtaining new credit and are a normal part of the lending process.
  • Cons: Multiple hard inquiries within a short period might raise concerns for lenders, indicating increased credit risk or desperate attempts for credit. This might lead to potential rejections or higher interest rates.


Soft Inquiries:


  • Definition: Soft inquiries, or soft pulls, occur when someone checks your credit report for reasons unrelated to a credit application. These inquiries include checking your own credit report, pre-approved offers, background checks, or credit checks not related to new credit applications.
  • Impact on Credit Score: Soft inquiries do not affect credit scores. They are for informational or promotional purposes and have no impact on creditworthiness.
  • Pros: Soft inquiries allow individuals to check their own credit reports regularly without affecting their credit scores. They also occur during background checks or when companies want to extend pre-approved offers without impacting credit health.
  • Cons: While they don't impact credit scores, excessive soft inquiries might signal credit-shopping behavior or potential fraud, which could warrant further investigation by lenders.


Managing Inquiries: Understanding how inquiries affect credit scores is essential for managing credit health. Being mindful of when and how often you apply for new credit can help minimize the impact of hard inquiries. Regularly checking your own credit report with soft inquiries ensures accuracy and helps detect potential errors or identity theft without affecting credit scores.

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Who Requests Credit Checks?


Several entities and individuals might have an interest in viewing an individual's credit report or credit score:


1. Lenders and Creditors: When you apply for a loan, mortgage, credit card, or any form of credit, lenders and creditors typically check your credit report and score to assess your creditworthiness and determine whether to approve your application.


2. Landlords: Landlords may request credit reports when considering rental applications. They use this information to gauge an applicant's financial responsibility and reliability in paying rent on time.


3. Employers: Some employers might conduct credit checks as part of their hiring process, especially for positions that involve financial responsibilities or access to sensitive information.


4. Insurance Companies: Insurance companies may use credit information to determine insurance premiums for policies such as auto or homeowner's insurance.


5. Utility Companies: When setting up new utility services, companies providing gas, electricity, or phone services might check credit reports to determine deposit requirements or service terms.


6. Government Agencies: Certain government agencies, particularly those involved in providing benefits or assistance, might check credit reports for eligibility determinations.


7. Individuals Themselves: It's essential for individuals to monitor their own credit reports regularly to ensure accuracy, detect errors, and protect against identity theft.


Understanding who can access credit information helps individuals manage their credit health, protect their privacy, and make informed financial decisions.

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Products that Require Hard Credit Inquiry


Several financial products or services typically require a hard credit check as part of the application process. These include:


1. Loans: When applying for various types of loans, such as personal loans, auto loans, student loans, or mortgages, lenders usually perform hard credit inquiries to assess creditworthiness.


2. Credit Cards: Most credit card issuers perform hard credit checks when individuals apply for new credit cards. This helps determine approval and the terms, including the credit limit and interest rate offered.


3. Mortgages: Mortgage lenders conduct thorough credit checks as part of the home loan application process. This is crucial for determining the borrower's ability to repay the mortgage and assessing the associated risks.


4. Car Financing: When individuals seek financing for purchasing or leasing a vehicle, lenders typically perform hard credit checks to assess the borrower's creditworthiness and determine loan terms.


5. Certain Rental Applications: While not always the case, some landlords or property management companies might conduct hard credit checks as part of the rental application process, particularly for high-end or competitive rentals.


These products and services often involve substantial financial commitments or potential liabilities, prompting lenders or providers to conduct detailed assessments of an individual's credit history and creditworthiness through hard credit inquiries.